Journey Concepts

Understand how to define Journey constituents like nodes, links, and sleep time.

Overview

This section covers the following Journey concepts:

Journey Components

A Journey is configured using a combination of the following components:

Journey Nodes

Nodes are different entry and exit points for user navigation.
The user navigates from a milestone to the intended one through different nodes, depending on the route they take.
For example, you want the user to register and purchase a product on your platform after installing the app. When the user registers on your platform after app installation, a journey to purchase a product activates. However, if the user does not register on your platform even after app installation, you can activate a journey that nudges them to register on the platform.
Nodes make it possible to automatically detect the route that the user takes, in order to steer them to the next relevant node.

A Journey is a combination of Segment nodes and Engagement nodes. You can connect Segment nodes and Engagement nodes to each other to create powerful automation.
When compared with Campaigns, the Segment nodes define the audience, and Engagement nodes define the target.

Segment Nodes

Segment nodes are various points in a journey to qualify users based on certain events.
The events may be either entry or navigation points based on the user's action/inaction.
In case of users not qualifying for a Segment, they may either be waiting for qualification or exit the journey, if entered.
For example, on a successful login creation after installing the app, the user qualifies for a registered event. In cases where the user does not create a login, they do not qualify, and based on the journey parameters, they either wait to enter the node or exit the journey.

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Segment Nodes

Types of Segment Nodes

Segment NodeDescriptionExample
ActionQualification to this node occurs as soon as the user performs the said event.Qualify users as soon as they do app install.
InactionSegment users who did the first/initial event, but did not do the second event within a specified time interval.Qualify users who added to cart, but did not purchase within five mins.
Past BehaviorSegment users who performed one event AND did not perform another in the past n days.Qualify users who performed Video Watched AND did not do Subscription Paid in the last 30 days.
Date TimeSegment users based on a date time property value like flight time, due date, travel time, and so on.Qualify users who have their credit card due date in the upcoming week.
Journey TriggerUse this node only in the entry criteria.
Segment users based on a different user journey node.
Qualify users in current journey when they enter X node of another journey.
For instance, all users who have received nudges based on Video Watched and Subscription not paid enter the current journey that offers discount codes for subscribing.̧
Custom listUse this node only in the entry criteria.
Upload custom list of users for entry to the Journey.
Qualify users based on an uploaded list from your Retail Point of Sale (POS).
Page VisitWeb based segment.
Segment users as soon as they visit a specific page.
Qualify users as soon as they visit a specific page.
Referrer EntryWeb based segment.
Segment users based on a referring website or campaign.
Qualify users as soon as they enter your website based on a referring website or campaign.
Page CountWeb based segment.
Segment users based on the number of pages visited by them.
Qualify users as soon as they visit X pages.

Engagement Nodes

Engagement nodes are interaction points in a user journey that determine the channel and its message contents. The interaction points are users engaging with nudges/notifications sent to them. Users that do not interact with engagements do not qualify.
For example, you can qualify users when they click a link in an email to indicate interaction. This enables further engagement to prompt certain user actions.

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Engagement Nodes

Types of Engagement Nodes

Engagement NodeDescriptionNode Actions
PushSend push notifications that display in the users' notification tray or the notification inbox.

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Clicked

  • Unreachable

SMSSend text messages to your app or website users even outside of the app.

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Unreachable

EmailSend emails to your app or website users

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

  • Unreachable

WebhookUse it to receive push notifications on the app server and track events in a system. You can also connect with an external source (e.g., Chatbots and virtual assistants) to send something via API.

  • Sent

Web PushSend browser-based messages to your website users even outside of your website.

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

  • Unreachable

Web Pop-upDisplay pop-up messages on desktop or mobile websites.

  • Sent

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

WhatsAppSend WhatsApp messages to your app or website users even outside of the app.To know more, refer Engagement Nodes - WhatsApp

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Delivered

  • Unreachable

Exit IntentDisplay pop-up messages before users leave your website

  • Sent

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

In-appDisplay pop-up messages while a user is in the app. An In-App renders as soon as the user performs an event.

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

InboxSend messages that remain accessible after they’re received in the app.

  • Sent

  • Viewed

  • Clicked

FacebookSend messages to users outside of your app or website via ads on Facebook.

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Unreachable

GoogleSend messages to users outside of your app or website, via ads on Google apps.

  • Sent

  • Failed

  • Unreachable

Amazon event bridgeInteract with Amazon EventBridge(if integrated) to send user action-based notifications.Sent
SegmentInteract with Segment(if integrated) to personalize engagements based on user actions.Sent
mParticleInteract with mParticle(if integrated) to collect user data for rich engagements.Sent

Engagement Node Actions

This section explains the status of the message delivery and the actions a user may perform on the engagement node.

Node ActionsDescription
SentIndicates that the message is sent from CleverTap and has reached the recipient's device. In the case of a Webhook, the recipient is the system server.
FailedIndicates that the sent message could not be delivered to its intended recipient due to specific errors. For example, third-party provider issues.
UnreachableIndicates that the sent message could not be delivered because the recipient's device or contact information is unavailable. For example, a push token or phone number does not exist.
ViewedIndicates that the user viewed the message sent from CleverTap. For example, the user views an Email or In-App notification.
ClickedIndicates that the user clicked the message sent from CleverTap. For example, the user clicks a Push, In-App, Email, Web Popup, or Web Push message.
DeliveredIn WhatsApp, Sent indicates that the message is on its way to the user's device, and Delivered indicates that the message has reached the recipient's device. If the user blocks you, the message does not reach them.

Controller Nodes

Controller Nodes are points in a user journey that perform certain actions. For example, you may exit a user from a journey after completing an Email Engagement.

Journey Controllers

Journey Controllers

Types of Controller Nodes

Controller NodeDescription
Force exitExit a user from a journey.
User profile updateUpdate a system or custom user property.
IntelliNODEDefine and compare multiple journey variations within a single journey.

Journey Connections

You can connect your journey nodes through links and specify a sleep time before an action.

Journey Links

Journey links are routing rules between different nodes. Based on user behavior or action, you can create a connection between a node and link it to distinct nodes.
For example, when you send push notifications to nudge buying for a segment of new users within the past year but have not purchased anything in the past month, you create a link between the segment node Past behavior and the engagement node Push.

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Journey Links

Sleep Time

When you choose a journey link and connect it to the engagement node, the hourglass **hourglass** icon appears on the link. Click the hourglass **hourglass** to modify the sleep time. By default, there's no sleep time.

Sleep Time enables you to specify whether to do the specified action immediately or after a gap. You may define the gap in minutes, hours or days.
In the below figure, you may choose to send the nudge either immediately, as soon as the user qualifies, or wait for a few days before nudging the user.

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Sleep Time

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Note

The In-App renders as soon as the user performs an event. Hence, sleep time does not apply to In-App. However, to add a delay, add a segment node followed by the In-App node.

Journey Procedures and Outcomes

The following table describes the procedures and outcomes involved in a Journey:

ConceptDescription
Publish the JourneyMakes your journey live.
Schedule the JourneyActivates the journey (users begin entering the journey) at a specified time—either now or at a later date.
Initial Run of the JourneyThe initial run of the journey occurs as soon as it is activated based on the scheduled date and time.
Subsequent Run of the Journey In the case of a PBS journey, after the initial run, if the journey is set to recurring, subsequent runs occur at 12:00 a.m. the following day. Assuming the recurring day is set to T, the subsequent run occurs on T+1 day.