Push Notification Errors in Android

Invalid FCM API Key

An invalid FCM API key error is displayed when the FCM API key in the CleverTap dashboard is incorrect. You will not be able to send any notifications until you add an FCM API key to your settings.

Follow the steps to update the FCM API key:

  1. Navigate to Settings > Engage > Channels > Mobile Push.
  2. Update the valid FCM API key as it is displayed in your Firebase project.
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For more information, refer to Find Your FCM Sender ID & FCM Server API Key.

FCM Token Invalid

The FCM token is not linked to any device that has your app. If the token is not valid, notifications are not delivered. Check the format of the FCM project number and registration token that you pass on to CleverTap.

For more information, refer to Troubleshooting Push Notifications.

FCM Error

This is a Firebase (Android) error. The FCM error is not part of the standard published list and is sometimes incorrectly identified as an Android bug.

FCM Not Registered

Most likely, the users have uninstalled the app from their device. One of the common non-technical errors is Undelivered due to App Uninstall in campaign reports. This error occurs when the users uninstall your app while you are trying to reach them via a push notification.

The FCM Not Registered error occurs in two scenarios:

  • When the users have uninstalled your app and you are trying to schedule a push notification to them.
  • When users have cleared the device cache memory, which in turn removes the token from the device.

FCM Mismatch Sender ID

An FCM sender ID mismatch occurs when the sender ID entered in the CleverTap dashboard under Push Notification settings does not match with the sender ID in the FCM project for your app created on Firebase.

You must match the sender ID/server keys at the following three locations:

  • App-level which registers token with the said FCM sender ID mentioned.
  • In the CleverTap dashboard.
  • FCM project.

If you have checked the sender ID for mismatch and the error still persists, check the following:

  • Does the app build and the CleverTap account contain mismatched sender IDs?
  • Do you have multiple Firebase projects?
  • Do you have multiple Platform IDs if your app is using two Firebase projects?

Push Notification Errors in iOS

APNS Device Token Does Not Match The Specified Topic

Apple Push Notification service (APNs) returns this when the device token does not match the specified topic.

In the context of CleverTap, you get this error when you try to send the notification with the wrong certificate. Check that you are using a production certificate for the production environment to avoid unsatisfactory configurations.

Check the provisioning profile used to deploy the app and send the device token to the CleverTap dashboard. To avoid this error, the App Bundle ID of the provisioning profile and the CleverTap push certificate (p12 certificate) must match.

APNS Unregistered

The Push notification delivery to the target has failed as the device token is inactive for the specified topic. If the device token is not valid/inactive, the notification is not delivered unless the user installs the app again.

APNS Topic Disallowed

The topic is currently the bundle identifier of the target application on an iOS device. The APNS Topic Disallowed error appears when you specify the incorrect App Bundle ID in the Account Settings.

For more information, refer to Registering Your App with APNs in the Apple documentation.

To resolve this error, check the value of the App Bundle ID and APNs push mode that you have configured in the CleverTap Dashboard under Push Settings.

APNS Temporarily Blacklisted

You are temporarily blacklisted from sending push notifications to the device because you sent bad tokens. The push notification will not be delivered for some duration.

APNS Failed Delivery

The notification to the device sent from CleverTap failed to deliver due to either of the following reasons:

  • The app was uninstalled and the token is no longer valid.
  • You have sent too many notifications successively and quickly to the same device.

If the user has uninstalled the app, not much can be done to deliver the notification.

For more information, refer to Handling Notification Responses from APNs in the Apple documentation.

APNs Bad Device Token

The push notification delivery to the target device has failed due to an invalid token. The APNs bad device token error occurs when there is a mismatch between the APNs push mode on your app and the CleverTap dashboard.

For example, you have set the APNs push mode in your app to development stage, and in the CleverTap dashboard, you have set up the APNs to production stage.

To check your CleverTap dashboard APNs push mode, navigate to Settings > Engage > Channels > Mobile Push > iOS.

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Campaign Errors

SMS Errors

An SMS error is a common campaign error that occurs while scheduling the SMS campaign. The SMS error appears if the SMS service provider’s endpoint is unavailable. It is applicable to generic integrations and MSG91 (SMS provider).

The SMS error shows the following message:

"Error java.net.SocketTimeoutException: Read timed out for message." It is referred to as the "SocketTimeoutException" error.

This SMS error occurs when CleverTap sends the SMS payload to the SMS provider’s endpoint, but there is no acknowledgment within 15 seconds.

You can view the errors within the campaign reports under the Error section. The SMS error appears under the Technical Errors category.

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Note

The issue generally means a socket timeout exception. Sometimes, it can also mean a connection request exception.

For other integrated vendors, we have the following equivalent errors:

  • Exotel server error
  • Twilio server error
  • Gupshup server error
  • Netcore service error
  • Nexmo SMS error

Web Push Unsubscribed

The "BrowserUnsubscribed" error appears after your app users unsubscribe themselves from web push notifications through the Chrome browser settings.

When you try to engage these unsubscribed users through web push, the "BrowserUnsubscribed" error appears.

Daily Limit Exceeded

While creating a recurring push campaign, you can set the daily limit. For example, you can set a daily send limit to 10,000 per day after which you get a Daily limit Exceeded error. You can also set an overall cap limit to 1,00,000 users after which the campaign stops.

You would generally set a daily limit in a triggered campaign where you are using a live segment. These campaigns are triggered based on an event and therefore, you would want a daily limit for your campaigns.

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You can set the campaign limits within the Who section while creating the campaign.

Per Run Limit Exceeded

The Per Run Limit is a limit enforced on the number of users who are sent in one campaign run. For example, you can set a maximum segment limit to 100,000 users and the campaign stops running after the set limit for each run.

The Per Run Limit Exceeded error occurs when the campaign stops running after the number of qualified users exceeds the set limit.

You would generally set a per run limit for past behavior and custom list segments. This is because the campaign is sent to all the qualified users based on their past actions. Therefore, you would want a per run limit for these campaigns.

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You can set the maximum segment size from the Who section while creating the campaign.

Q. Why is the reachability for my campaigns so low?

When you create a segment, you can view the reachability of this segment across all channels such as, Web Push, Mobile Push, SMS, Email, and Audiences. This helps you to check the reachability of your campaigns even before you create them.

Navigate to Segments > Segments, then choose the Segment name.

Some of the reasons that may affect Mobile Push reachability include:

  • Token Not Present: One of the key reasons for low reachability is because the push token is not available in the user profile.
  • User Unsubscribe: The user may have unsubscribed from your app and does not want to receive push notifications.
  • Token Not Generated: The token did not generate on the first app launch.
  • App Uninstall: The user has uninstalled the app.

Q. How does the User DND Set error occur?

The User DND Set error occurs when you qualify users for a campaign even though they have unsubscribed on the target device. This error informs you that these users have been passed into the error bucket.

Q. What is the Frequency Caps Exceed error?

The Global Frequency feature restricts the maximum number of messages you can schedule each day for your user and across different channels.

Navigate to Settings > Engage > Setup > Campaign limits to cap the frequency for various channels.

From this page, you can define the number of messages you want to send to each user in X number of days.

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You can also specify the Dwell time which is the gap you want to keep between two messages, and Throttle which controls the flow of your messages.

For more information on dwell time, refer to Dwell Time Between Messages.

For more information on throttling, refer to Throttle.

Now when you create a campaign and you want to disable the Global frequency limit, clear the Global Campaign Limit option under the Who section. The Global Campaign Limit is enabled by default.

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Dashboard Errors

Q. How can I upload a CSV file from the dashboard?

You can bulk upload user profiles using the CSV Upload feature. You can also use this feature to add or update information for existing user profiles.

Follow the steps below to upload the CSV file in your CleverTap dashboard:

  1. Login to your CleverTap account, and then click the Settings button.
  2. Click on the CSV Uploads button.
  3. Click the Import new profiles from CSV button.
  4. Select the CSV file from your computer, and then click the Upload button.
  5. Enter a name for the upload.

Your CSV upload is processed in near real-time. After the uploaded CSV is processed, the status for that upload is changed to completed.

For more information, refer to CSV Upload.

Q. How can I delete the events data from the dashboard without discarding events?

You can simply reset the DRP for each event. All the event data beyond the selected date range is discarded.

For example, if you set the DRP of an event to 12 months, we will store the data for the past 12 months. All the data prior to the 12 months are deleted. You can optimize your container and avoid flooding it with too much data.

Follow these steps to adjust the DRP for each event:

  1. Navigate to Settings > Schema > Events.
  2. Click on the vertical ellipsis of the event for which you want to adjust/reduce the DRP.
  3. Click Set DRP.
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  1. Choose the storage time accordingly.

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CleverTap for Startups Limit

The default DRP for CleverTap for Startups users is one year and this cannot be changed.

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  1. Click Save.

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Note

Analyze your data before reducing the DRP. Only remove the data that will not affect your campaigns. The maximum reduction in data DRP is up to three months.

Events and User Profiles

Q. How can I export data from CleverTap?

You can export the data from CleverTap using one of the three methods below:

  • S3 Export (AWS): You can export your event and profile data in the AWS S3 bucket using CleverTap Data Exports. For more information on using our data export, refer to Data Export to AWS S3.

  • Export via API: You can export your events and user data with our APIs. For more information, refer to API Overview.

  • Find People: You can download the profile data directly from the CleverTap dashboard through the Find People page with the following steps:

  1. Navigate to Segments > Find People.
  2. Define the criteria that you want to export, then click View Details.
  3. Click on the download icon below Total users to initiate the export.
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Webhooks

Q. What is a Webhook Dispatched Failed error?

The Webhook Dispatched Failed error occurs when the CleverTap server does not receive a "200 OK" response. A "200 OK" response is an acknowledgment from the REST API server that the API request was received successfully.

This error can occur in either of the three scenarios:

  • When CleverTap sends the payload to your endpoint and we do not receive a "200 OK" response after retrying three times after a wait of 15 seconds.
  • When CleverTap sends the payload and your endpoint health is down.
  • When you may receive the payload at your endpoint but not send a "200 OK" response to CleverTap server within the timeout frame of 3 seconds. CleverTap displays a Webhook Dispatched Failed error in this case.

As a best practice, we recommend queueing the payload at your end and providing us a "200 OK" in response.

Identity

Q. What is a Duplicate Platform ID error?

The Duplicate Platform ID error occurs in one of the following scenarios:

  • When a single token is assigned to multiple profiles and both the profiles qualify for the campaign. CleverTap sends the notification to the profile that qualifies first, and the other profile is marked as a Duplicate Platform ID.
  • When the same mobile number is assigned to multiple profiles and they qualify in your campaign. Only one profile receives the notification, and the other profiles are marked as a Duplicate Platform ID.

CSV Uploads

Uploading your historical user data via CSV is quick and simple; however, note the following key pointers before uploading your user data via CSV:

  • The identity field must be defined as identity with a lowercase i and not Identity.
  • The identity field is a mandatory column.
  • Check that your CSV complies with the CSV standards, otherwise the upload will be denied.
  • You can download the sample CSV file for a quick check from the Settings section under CSV uploads.

Below is a sample CSV:

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Email

Q. How do I find IPs to send out emails, webhooks, SMS, and push notifications?

You can find the IPs for your region such as, In, Sg, and Eu under Settings > Integration > Push Notification. The IPs are only visible under Push Notifications; however, these are the same IPs used for all the engagement channels. The IPs in the Integration setup of the new dashboard is visible under Settings > Engage> Channels > Mobile Push > FCM credentials. Click on FCM credentials to expand it and you can see the IPs on the right.

Q. How do you handle unsubscribe and bounce for callbacks, such as Mandrill or SendGrid?

CleverTap must receive notification for any email that is classified as bounced, rejected, or user unsubscribed. We do not attempt any further deliveries to mailboxes.

For more information, refer to Sendgrid Bounces, Rejections, and Unsubscriptions and Mandril Bounces, Rejections, and Unsubscriptions.

A service provider tracks any user unsubscribes using the unsubscription link in your email. The service provider then sends this information to CleverTap through the callback URL.

The communication preference for users is marked as false (MSG_Email=False).
The hard bounce and unsubscribed users both fall under unsubscription. Follow the steps below to find the number of users who have unsubscribed via email:

  1. Navigate to Segments > Find People.
  2. From the Display common properties, select Reachability > Unsubscribed > Yes.

Q. How do you annotate an email?

Email annotations in the Promotions tab bring email messages to life with images, deals, expiration dates, and more. The email annotation can be performed in the drag-and-drop email editor and also in the custom HTML email editor.

Use the tag in the drag-and-drop editor to annotate an email. Following is the sample code that can be used in the HTML block of the drag-and-drop editor:

<p>
<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Organization">

<meta itemprop="logo" content="https://www.gstatic.com/images/branding/product/1x/googleg_48dp.png" />

</div>

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/DiscountOffer">

<meta itemprop="description" content="40% off" />

<meta itemprop="discountCode" content="DISCOUNTCODE" />

<meta itemprop="availabilityStarts" content="2020-03-20T08:00:00-07:00" />

<meta itemprop="availabilityEnds" content="2020-03-21T23:59:59-07:00" />

</div>

<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/PromotionCard">

<meta itemprop="image" content="https://gmail-ads-markup-test.sandbox.google.com/sample.png" />

</div> This is metadata in HTML block of drag and drop editor</p>

For custom HTML implementation, refer to Get started: How to annotate your email in the Google documentation. The Promotions tab capability works in custom HTML with both inline microdata and the script tag.

When you test this feature, check the following:

  • The target audience email addresses are not GSuite emails.
  • The availability start date must be far apart from the end date. If the values of the start date and end date are closer to the current date, then the mail is most likely to appear in the Top Picks of the Promotions tab.

Q. How do you add custom fonts in email?

You need the CleverTap custom HTML builder for your email campaigns.

You can add custom fonts to emails by adding a link tag to the header of your email HTML. It means the font must be hosted somewhere on the internet. Following is an example:

<html>
<head>
    <link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Roboto" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
</head>
<body>
<h1 style="font-family:'Roboto'">Test text</h1>
</body>
</html>

Custom fonts may not be supported by all email clients. If you are adding a custom font to emails, you may also want to specify fallback fonts. This ensures the latter font is picked up if the first font is unavailable.

Following is an example:

<h1 style="font-family: Lato, 'Lucida Grande', Tahoma, Sans-Serif;">Welcome</h1>

Q. What does the Do not stack on mobile devices mean?

Do not stack on mobile devices alerts you that it will disable the resizing and repositioning of the content per the device screen width.

With Stacking on Mobile

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Without Stacking on Mobile

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Q. How do you add a GIF file in an email?

You can add a GIF file using the content field image or custom HTML by following the steps below:

  1. Select the New Email with drag and drop template.
  2. From the Content tab, click Image.
  3. Drag and drop the image icon in the email body.
  4. Click Browse.
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  1. Click Upload and select your GIF file.
  2. In the File manager, find your GIF file and click Insert.
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Note

  • Images/GIFs must be less than 5 MB; however, we recommend the media must be less than 1 MB for optimal results. The media may not load in the user's inbox because all your users may not have a high-speed internet connection.
  • The media formats supported are JPEG, GIF, and MP4.

Q. Can I integrate an email provider that is not listed in documents?

Yes, you can use Generic SMTP to integrate any email provider of your choice. For more information, refer to Generic SMTP.

Push Notifications

Q. Why does the image not render in push notifications for Android?

The image rendering in a push notification is determined by three factors:

  1. Image size: There is no size limit as long as there is a stable internet connection; however, if there is an unstable internet connection, the chance of failure when downloading images is higher; therefore, smaller size images are recommended.
  2. User's internet connection: The push is only rendered with the title and message if it is unable to download the image in approximately 10 seconds.
  3. CDN (Content Delivery Network) throughput: Check that the CDN for hosting your images is scalable. This is because the OS downloads the image every time a push is sent to a user. For example, if your user base is 5 million users, then you must be able to scale the CDN to support push notifications for this user base.

Q. How do I analyze the CTA button for the mobile push campaign?

To track the number of clicks on the Click To Action (CTA) buttons of the push notification, follow the steps below:

  1. Navigate to AnalyticsEvents.
  2. Select the Notification Clicked event and filter the event based on the specific Campaign ID.
  3. Click View details.
  4. Navigate to Trend & Properties, and then scroll down to the Event property table and select wzrk_c2a from the dropdown to view the distribution of clicks across various buttons on that respective campaign.

Q. Why does the image not render in push notifications for iOS?

To render the image push notification for iOS, you must enable the rich media notification in iOS. You can enable Rich Push Notifications by using a notification service extension. This is a separate and distinct binary embedded in your app bundle.

To enable the notification service extension, refer to UNNotificationServiceExtension in the Apple documentation.

Q. Why am I receiving blank push notifications?

This may happen if you are custom handling/custom rendering the push notifications and have enabled uninstall tracking. Check for the following:

  • The push notifications are not handled by CleverTap SDK and the handling is performed through your custom code. This custom code must read the payload defined by CleverTap and fetch the Title, Message, and other parameters using the keys mentioned in the payload.

  • If the custom code is unable to understand the payload defined by CleverTap, then the push notifications are displayed without a message.

  • Below is a sample payload for Android that can help to identify the keys and their respective values for custom push rendering:

{
wzrk_acct_id=CleverTap_Account_ID, 
custom key=custom value, //custom key values (optional)
wzrk_acts=[
{"l":"Action button 1",
"dl":"deep link for action button 1",
"id":"action id of the action button 1","
ico":"Icon resource identifier for action button 1"}
], 
nm=the message of the push, //Message text
nt=title of the push, //Title text
pr=max, 
ico=large icon url, 
wzrk_pivot=wzrk_default, 
wzrk_sound=Custom sound file name, 
wzrk_cid=123456, //Notificaiton channel id 
wzrk_nms=Summary text field, // Summary text
wzrk_rnv=true, 
wzrk_ttl=1586148291, //Time to live in epoch
wzrk_push_amp=false, 
wzrk_bc=badge icon, 
wzrk_bi=2, 
wzrk_bp=image URL, 
wzrk_ck=collapse notification, //Collapse key
wzrk_dl=deep link url here, 
wzrk_dt=FIREBASE, 
wzrk_id=0_0, 
wzrk_pn=true, 
wzrk_st=subtitle //Subtitle text
}
  • Also, CleverTap sends a silent push notification (blank push) to track App Uninstalls if Uninstall tracking is enabled on the CleverTap dashboard. If you are custom handling the push notifications, you are parsing the payload by yourself and rendering the notifications on the device using your own method, you must check for the nm or nt tags. These tags in the payload of the push hold the title and message of the push notification. If these tags are empty, then the push must not be rendered. The code must identify the silent push notification and the normal push notification.

  • If the above is not implemented, then the users will get blank push notifications around midnight when the App Uninstall sweep runs on CleverTap.

Q. Why are push impressions not raised?

Check that the push impression event is enabled with the following steps:

  1. Navigate to Settings > Schema > Events.
  2. Search for Push Impressions, then click on the vertical ellipsis.
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  1. Click on Setup push impressions. A new window displays.
  2. Click on Save to enable the option.

If the steps above fail, check the SDK version used for Android and iOS. The Push Impression event feature is available from 3.5.1 SDK version for Android and from 3.7.1 for iOS.

For iOS, you must also implement an API in your app. For more information, refer to Rich Push Notifications. For Android, once your app is on SDK v3.5.1+, the push impression statistics will start showing for qualified users on a push notification campaign because the feature is already enabled in your event settings.

For more information, refer to Custom Android Push Notifications Handling.

Q. What is the format of the payload of the push notification for Android?

Following is an example payload for Android:

{
  "wzrk_acct_id": "CleverTap_Account_ID",
  "custom key": "custom value",
  "wzrk_acts": [
    {
      "l": "Action button 1",
      "dl": "deep link for action button 1",
      "id": "action id of the action button 1",
      "ico": "Icon resource identifier for action button 1"
    }
  ],
  "nm": "the message of the push",
  "nt": "title of the push",
  "pr": "max",
  "ico": "large icon url",
  "wzrk_pivot": "wzrk_default",
  "wzrk_sound": "Custom sound file name",
  "wzrk_cid": "Notification Channel ID",
  "wzrk_nms": "Summary text field",
  "wzrk_rnv": true,
  "wzrk_ttl": 1586148291,
  "wzrk_push_amp": false,
  "wzrk_bc": 1,
  "wzrk_bi": "badge_icon",
  "wzrk_bp": "image URL",
  "wzrk_ck": "collapse notification",
  "wzrk_dl": "deep link url here",
  "wzrk_dt": "FIREBASE",
  "wzrk_id": "0_0",
  "wzrk_pn": true,
  "wzrk_st": "subtitle"
}

This payload is received as bundle data and the JSON is only for representation purposes.

Following are the keys for the push notification:

Key

Description

wzrk_acct_id

CleverTap account ID

custom key

Any custom key the user can add

wzrk_acts

Action button payload

nm

Notification message

nt

Notification title

ico

Icon resource identifier for an action button

wzrk_pivot

Variant A or B of A/B campaign

wzrk_cid

Notification channel ID

wzrk_nms

Summary text

wzrk_rnv

A flag to raise notification viewed event. If present and not empty, it will raise a notification viewed event.

wzrk_ttl

Time to live (TTL)

wzrk_push_amp

Push amp

wzrk_bc

Badge count

wzrk_bi

Badge icon

wzrk_bp

Image URL

wzrk_ck

Collapse key

wzrk_dl

Deep link URL

wzrk_dt

Service used to send the message (e.g. FIREBASE)

wzrk_id

Campaign ID

wzrk_pn

Push notification. If present, this notification is sent from CleverTap.

wzrk_st

Subtitle

wzrk_pid

Refers to Campaign ID with the date of the campaign creation.

Q. What is the format of the payload of the push notification for iOS?

Following is an example payload for iOS:

[CleverTap]: Handling notification: {
  "W$dt" = APPLE;
  "W$id" = "1591036839_20200601";
  "W$pivot" = "wzrk_default";
  "W$rnv" = 1;
  aps =   {
    alert =     {
      body = Testing;
      title = Campaign;
    };
    "mutable-content" = 1;
    sound = default;
  };
  "ct_mediaType" = image;
  "ct_mediaUrl" = "https://formpicture.com/photo.png";
  "wzrk_acct_id" = "TEST-Z48-Z75-785Z";
  "wzrk_dl" = "https://www.google.com";
}

Following are the keys for the push notification:

Key

Description

W$dt

Notification service

W$id

Campaign ID_date

W$pivot

Variant

W$rnv

Raises notification viewed

body

Notification message

title

Notification title

mutable-content

Value is 1 if enabled and 0 if disabled

sound

Notification sound (default is OS)

ct_mediaType

Type of media

ct_mediaUrl

Media link

wzrk_acct_id

Account ID

wzrk_dl

Deeplink URL

Q. How do you add a small icon in the push notification?

Sometimes, the small icon may not appear in the notification even if you add the small icon in the Android manifest file.

To set a custom notification icon (only for the small icon), add the following metadata entry in your AndroidManifest.xml:

<meta-data
    android:name="CLEVERTAP_NOTIFICATION_ICON"
    android:value="ic_stat_red_star"/> <!-- name of your file in the drawable directory without the file extension. -->

If the small icon still does not appear, check the following in your Android project:

  • Your app must have a small icon file in your drawable resources.
  • You are using a PNG file and not a JPEG file for the small icon.
  • The background in your icon file is transparent.
  • The small icon image must be monochrome without alpha channels (RGB colors) and with 60-70% opacity such as, white pixels on a transparent backdrop.

For more information, refer to Set the Small Notification Icon and Create App Icons with Image Asset Studio in the Android documentation.

Q. What is an Action ID in Android?

For Android push notifications, you can add up to three action buttons. You can define the title, deep-link, and the action ID of each button.

The application uses the value of the action ID to identify the button that was clicked.

The default behavior (when closing the notification is handled using CleverTap SDK) for clicking on the action button is that the user is directed to the deep link or application and the notification is dismissed automatically.

You can handle the closing of the notification yourself at the code level and only then, your app can get the action ID values. Based on the action ID value of the action button clicked, you can perform any operations as per your requirement.

For more information on Android, refer to Action Buttons.

For iOS:
You must implement a category for iOS. You can enter the name of the category while creating the campaign. Each category must be registered with the app. Each of these categories is associated with actions that the user can perform when a notification of rich media type is delivered. Each category can have up to four actions associated with it, although the number of actions actually displayed depends on the type of notification delivered. This enables users to take multiple actions for the notification. For example, a single media push notification can have two buttons such as, Buy Now and Save for Later.

For more information on iOS, refer to Advanced iOS Push Notifications.

Q. Why do I receive the same message body twice in a push notification?

If you are custom handling your push notifications and using CleverTapAPI.createNotification() and your own function (for example: sendNotification()) for displaying notifications in the custom message listener service, then the message may be sent twice. Remove the sendNotification() method and use the CleverTapAPI.createNotification() method only. The CleverTapAPI.createNotification() method creates a notification that is handled via CleverTap.

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Note

If you want to display the notification using your own function, then remove the call to the CleverTap SDK for displaying the notification. This ensures that multiple calls are not made to display a push.

Q. Why do push notifications with images truncate the text in the message?

This is expected behavior because Android truncates message text with images. The rendered image shares the space leaving less space available for the message text. There is no fixed character limit for the message text. This depends on the device used to view the push notification. If the user device has a small screen resolution, then the message text is cropped after a few words; however, a user may see all the characters on a big-screen resolution.

When creating notifications, be careful about big text and a big image.

If you want to see the full text (big text) or you want to add the text in multiple lines, then do either of the following:

  • Send the notification without an image (big image).
  • Custom handle the push notification at your end to support big text and a big image.

Q. Why do Android users receive two notifications from the same campaign after integrating Xiaomi Push services?

For a greater chance of delivery success, we send a push notification through both Xiaomi Cloud Push and Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) push services. If a message is delivered and rendered through one of these push services, the notification from the other cloud service is suppressed by the CleverTap SDK.

If you are custom rendering the push notifications, then the push notifications are being rendered by your custom code. You will have to implement the suppression mechanism at your end.

The mechanism should check if a push notification has already been rendered for the campaign and suppress the payload from another push service. This ensures the user receives only one push notification for a given campaign.

Q. Why is my push notification campaign running slowly?

If you feel that the push campaigns are executing slowly, then it could be due to either of the following reasons:

  • Personalized messages: If personalization is used in the message, then the push notifications will not be sent in batches containing multiple users because the content of the push is different for each user. The push request for each user is made separately and this increases the time to process.

  • Throttle: The push campaign can execute slowly as it adheres to the throttle limit that is set for push notifications in the Campaign Limits under Account Settings. The throttle limit specified from the dashboard during the campaign creation is considered throughout the lifetime of the campaign. The throttle for existing campaigns is not updated when the global throttle is updated. The new throttle is considered only for the new campaigns.

Q. What is the recommended image dimension in push notifications with a CTA?

The recommended aspect ratio is 16:9 and the minimum recommended size is 533.33 X 300 pixels. The supported file types are PNG, JPG, and JPEG, and the maximum size is 40 kb.

You can adjust the dimensions accordingly. You can also refer to the following link to calculate the aspect ratio: https://calculateaspectratio.com.

Q. Where can I update Xiaomi/Huawei credentials?

After you have an app secret and package name, you must update it on the CleverTap dashboard using the following steps:

  1. Click Settings from the dashboard.
  2. Click Channels > Mobile push. The push notification setup page displays.
  3. Click Huawei or Xiaomi push notifications and add App secret and package name/App ID.
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Q. How can I have a small icon instead of a white square box on the top left screen?

The small icon must be set at the code level in the manifest file. The small icon must be alpha. You can create the icon using the Image Asset Studio tool included in the Android Studio.

For more information, refer to Set the Small Notification Icon.

Q. How can I redirect the users to MWeb when they click the push notification?

To redirect users to MWeb, you can add the URL of the page as a deep link when creating a campaign. The users are redirected to the page specified in the deep link. For example, https://clevertap.com/.

Q. How do you resolve the popup for installing the HMS core app on non-Huawei devices?

This popup appears on non-Huawei devices after implementing Huawei push notifications. To avoid this popup, check for HMS class on all devices and trigger the push registration service only if HMSclass is available on the device. For more information, refer to Preferentially Using HMS for Determination in the Huawei documentation.

Q. Why do I see 0% push notifications for Xiaomi and 100% for Firebase (FCM)?

The Xiaomi/Baidu/Huawei push notifications may show 0% on campaign stats if all the notifications are delivered through FCM. For a greater chance of delivery success, CleverTap sends a push notification through the Xiaomi/Baidu/Huawei Push and Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) push services. If a message is delivered through any one of these push services, then the notification from the other cloud services is suppressed. There is no priority that is defined for the messaging service and there are no changes to the current flow of FCM. This ensures the user receives the push notification only once.

The services that are not integrated with CleverTap are shown as N/A.

Q. What is the difference between a User not reachable and a Profile not reachable error?

These errors mean the following:

  • User not reachable - This error is raised when the qualifying device is not reachable on the selected communication channel. For example, if a user performs a qualifying action on the web for a mobile push live campaign.

  • Profile not reachable - This error is raised when the qualifying profile is not reachable on the selected communication channel. For example, a user blocks push notifications on iOS but qualifies for a campaign. This user does not receive the campaign and is marked as profile not reachable.

Android

Q. Can I send push notifications from both Firebase and CleverTap in my app?

Yes, you can mention your own listener service that is implemented In the AndroidManifest.xml file. You can then choose to render the notification either from CleverTap or your own service. For more information, refer to Custom Android Push Notifications Handling.

iOS

Q. Is there an action ID for iOS similar to Android?

The iOS equivalent for action ID is category. These categories are static and must be shipped with the app. You can add the name of the category while creating a campaign. Each category must be registered with the app. This category is associated with actions that the user can perform when a notification of rich media type is delivered. Each category can have up to four actions associated with it. The actual number of actions actually displayed for the category depends on the type of notification delivered. Users can perform multiple actions for the notification. For example, a single media push notification can have two buttons such as, Buy Now and Save for Later.

For more information, refer to Advanced iOS Push Notifications.

Q. Why does the word modified display in the title for iOS push notifications?

The word modified displays in push notifications if you enable the advanced option in a campaign. Implement the Rich Push notifications in a future update to address this issue. If you are not using Rich Push, then clear the advanced option you have selected in the campaign.

Q. How do I disable IDFA tracking in iOS?

To disable the IDFA tracking, follow the steps below:

  1. Check that you have not added the CleverTapUseIFA flag in the info.plist file.
  2. Remove the AdSupport framework from your build if you have added it in your linked libraries.
  3. When submitting your app to the app store, you are asked if your app supports IDFA. Select No.

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Note

IDFA is not supported for iOS versions 14 and higher.

In-App

Q. How do you analyze the CTA button for in-app campaigns?

The data for a number of clicks on each CTA button is available under the Analytics section in the dashboard.

Follow the steps below:

  1. In Events, query for the Notification Clicked event filtered by the campaign ID, then in the result, navigate to Trend & Properties.
  2. Scroll down to the Event property table and select the event property as "wzrk_c2a" from the dropdown to see a distribution of clicks across the various buttons on that respective email campaign.
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Q. Why does the in-app notification give an error FCM payload too large?

The test in-app is sent within a push notification. The limit for push notification payload as defined by FCM is 4KB beyond which the notification is not sent.

If the in-app notification has a large HTML code or a heavy size, it shows an error and the test in-app is not sent; however, this does not apply to a live campaign because there are no push notifications.

To resolve this error, you can first schedule a live campaign with this HTML for internal users.

Q. Why does the in-app campaign not render an API event?

The in-app works for SDK events, such as events raised from the device. There can be delays in the APIs and by design, the in-app is meant to be sent in real-time to the user. Therefore, the in-apps must be triggered by a mobile SDK event.

Q. How can one close the in-app notification with the click of a button?

The workaround is to create a button and add the reference of that button to a dummy hyperlink. This closes the in-app notification because the link does not exist, so there is no redirection.

Here is a sample link: wzrk://thisisadummylink

Q. How do I exclude in-app from the Android activity?

If your application has a splash screen (for example, logo screen or loading page) displayed on app launch, then the in-app triggered on App Launch would be attempted to be displayed on this screen. As soon as this screen is dismissed, the in-app will be dismissed too.

In these types of cases, the splash screen must be excluded. Mention the Activities on which you do not want in-app notifications to show in the android:value of the metadata tag in the AndroidManifest.xml file.

<meta-data
    android:name="CLEVERTAP_INAPP_EXCLUDE"
    android:value="YourSplashActivity1, YourSplashActivity2" />

For more information, refer to In-app Notifications.

Q. Why do I receive a CleverTap push notification even after sending a test in-app?

An in-app test is always sent like a push notification. The entry action (event) does not matter. When you click the send a test notification option, this message, "Touch this notification to open your app and view your view your notification" is sent out as a push notification. When this notification is clicked, the app opens and displays your in-app notification. This is applicable only to a test notification. The live campaign will schedule as usual and show the in-app after a user qualifies (performing the entry event).

Q. Why can I not see the videos on Interstitial in-app notifications?

The video must meet the following requirements:

  • The video must be in MP4 format.
  • The video size must be lower than 50MB.
  • The dependencies which are required to include audio/video in the in-app notification are included.

Add the following dependencies below in your application’s build.gradle file:

Dependencies {

 implementation 'com.google.android.exoplayer:exoplayer:2.8.4'

 implementation 'com.google.android.exoplayer:exoplayer-hls:2.8.4'

implementation 'com.google.android.exoplayer:exoplayer-ui:2.8.4'}

Q. How do I close an in-app notification automatically after a specific duration?

You can use the set timeout function in custom HTML to dismiss the in-app.

Following is a sample code:

<!DOCTYPE html >
<html id="myClass">
<head>
    <title></title>
    <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.4.0/jquery.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body style="background: white">
<h1>Test</h1>
<!-- <button style="visibility: hidden;" id = "theSubmitButton" onclick="window.location.href='wzrk://this_leads_to_nowhere'">Click me</button>  -->

<p><button id="theSubmitButton" onclick="window.location.href='wzrk://exit'" style="visibility: hidden;">Click me</button></p>

<p id="demo"> </p>
<script>
   setTimeout(function myFunction() {
       document.getElementById('theSubmitButton').click();
   }, 1000); // Change time for whatever miliseconds required.
   </script></body>
</html>

Q. How do I analyze the CTA button for in-app campaigns?

To view the data for a number of clicks on each CTA button, navigate to Analytics > Events from the dashboard. Then, follow the steps below:

  1. Select the Notification Clicked event and filter it by the campaign ID.
    Click the View Details button. The event details page displays.
  2. Click the Trend & Properties tab.
  3. Scroll down to the Event property table and select the event property as "wzrk_c2a" from the list.
  4. A distribution of clicks across the various buttons on that respective in-app, pop-up campaign displays.
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Q. My in-app shows 0 views even after qualifying multiple users. What could be wrong?

The in-app notifications require SDK version 3.5.1 and above. The warm-up time for the campaign is three to five minutes. Check the following before scheduling an in-app campaign:

  • In-apps require the app to be open and the event must be fired from the mobile SDK. Hence, the in-app campaigns do not work on an event that is triggered via an API.
  • There cannot be multiple in-apps running on the same event. The in-app that was created first is displayed, and the other events show 0 views.

Q. Why does the in-app notification disappear from the user's device in a few seconds?

The in-app notification is dismissed if you display it over the splash/logo screen because the in-app is automatically dismissed when the underlying splash screen is dismissed. Exclude the splash screen to avoid displaying an in-app.

Add the following meta-data in the AndroidManifest.xml to exclude the splash screen from your in-app notification:

{code}
<meta-data
android:name="CLEVERTAP_INAPP_EXCLUDE"
android:value="YourSplashActivity1, YourSplashActivity2" />
{code}

Add the activities to exclude from in-app notifications in the android:value row of the metadata tag.

Q. Does the in-app message support GIF files?

The CleverTap SDK version 3.3.0 and above supports GIF within the interstitial in-app messages. You can also send GIF files in in-app campaigns using a custom HTML.

For more information, refer to Template Aspect Ratio and Image Size Guide.

Q. Can I handle the URL at the client side for in-app campaigns?

This is supported for CleverTap Android SDK version 3.6.1 and above and CleverTap iOS SDK version 3.7.1 and above. It works for the following templates:

  • Cover
  • Interstitial
  • Half-interstitial
  • Header
  • Footer

You can add the key-value pair for a button-click in the What section of the campaign creation screen:

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You must implement the button-click callback in your iOS and Android apps where you can get these key-value pairs.

Q. How do you add custom fonts in in-app campaigns?

You can use custom fonts in a regular HTML page by importing them in the head tag of the HTML code, then using them in the CSS.

<head> tag of HTML

<link href='[PLACE SOURCE URL FOR FONT HERE]' rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
  <link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css2?family=Oswald:[email protected]&family=Roboto&display=swap" rel="stylesheet">

CSS

.sample-class { 
  font-family: '[Name of font]', arial, serif; 
}
font-family: 'Oswald', sans-serif;

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Note

You must select custom HTML to use your custom font in the in-app campaign.

SMS

Q. What is a Profile not reachable error?

The error Profile not reachable occurs whenever the qualified device is not reachable via the selected communication channel.

Some examples include:

  • SMS: The profile does not have a phone number or the user has unsubscribed from SMS communication.
  • Push: Device token is not present during the time of the campaign.
  • Emails: The user has unsubscribed or the e-mail communication flag has been set to false.
    The reachability of the user can be checked by checking the communication preferences under the user's profile.

Q. What is a Duplicate Profile for the channel error?

This error indicates two different profiles have the same credentials such as a phone number, a push token, and an email (based on the communication channel). The engagement is sent to the first profile and this error is raised for the second profile.

Q. What is the character limit for SMS?

The limit for a standard SMS is 140-160 characters after which the remainder of the message is sent as a new SMS.

Q. Why do some emojis and characters not display in my SMS body?

To resolve this issue, check that your service provider supports sending special characters/emojis in an SMS.


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